赵欣语, 于秀金. 词汇类型学视角下白昼时段构词倾向性的认知研究[J]. 外国语, 2024, 47(3): 15-26.
引用本文: 赵欣语, 于秀金. 词汇类型学视角下白昼时段构词倾向性的认知研究[J]. 外国语, 2024, 47(3): 15-26.
ZHAO Xinyu, YU Xiujin. A Cognitive Study of the Tendency of Daytime Word-Formation from the Perspective of Lexical Typology[J]. Journal of Foreign Languages, 2024, 47(3): 15-26.
Citation: ZHAO Xinyu, YU Xiujin. A Cognitive Study of the Tendency of Daytime Word-Formation from the Perspective of Lexical Typology[J]. Journal of Foreign Languages, 2024, 47(3): 15-26.

词汇类型学视角下白昼时段构词倾向性的认知研究

A Cognitive Study of the Tendency of Daytime Word-Formation from the Perspective of Lexical Typology

  • 摘要: 本文在词汇类型学视角下考察9个语系52种现代语言的时间词“上午”“中午”“下午”的构词倾向和认知理据,并结合古汉语的情况进行分析,研究发现:1)低纬度语言的“上下午”倾向于独立构词,而中高纬度语言的“上下午”倾向于基于“中午”进行构词;2)通过SPSS相关性分析,在全纬度范围内,“中午”在构词方面的显赫度与纬度存在强相关,低纬度与中高纬度的临界点是“中午”显赫度的拐点;3)“上午”的独立性强于“下午”,“下午”和“中午”的联结性高于“上午”和“中午”的联结性;4)白昼时段构词存在两种时空隐喻模式:静态存在和动态过程。本文归纳出8种白昼时段构词,并根据古汉语的白昼时段构词发展过程,依据语言表达的经济性原则和时间认知的渐进性,尝试提出“上下午”和“中午”构词可能存在的发展路径。

     

    Abstract: This paper investigates the word-formation tendency and cognitive motivation of the time words “morning”, “noon” and “afternoon” in 52 modern languages of 9 language families and ancient Chinese from the perspective of lexical typology. The research shows that: 1) Languages of low latitude areas prefer words of “morning” and “afternoon” formed independently, while languages of middle and high latitude areas incline to form morning and afternoon based on “noon”; 2) The SPSS correlation analysis shows that there is a strong correlation between latitudes and the prominence of “noon” of all latitudes in word-formation, and that the critical point between the low latitude and the mid-high latitude is the inflection point of the prominence of noon; 3) “Morning” shows more independence than “afternoon” and the connection between “afternoon” and “noon” is stronger than that between “morning” and “noon”; 4) Two patterns of the space-time metaphor exist in the word-formation of daytime periods: the static existence and the dynamic course. 8 types of daytime word-formations are identified. Based on the development process of daytime period words in ancient Chinese, the economy principle of language and the gradualness of time cognition, two possible development paths of morning-afternoon and noon are proposed.

     

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