任东升, 闫莉平. “奉诏译”与“进译”——三国至北宋佛经汉译史检视[J]. 外国语, 2024, 47(3): 110-120.
引用本文: 任东升, 闫莉平. “奉诏译”与“进译”——三国至北宋佛经汉译史检视[J]. 外国语, 2024, 47(3): 110-120.
REN Dongsheng, YAN Liping. A Reexamination on Fengzhaoyi and Jinyi in the History of Chinese Translation of Buddhist Scriptures[J]. Journal of Foreign Languages, 2024, 47(3): 110-120.
Citation: REN Dongsheng, YAN Liping. A Reexamination on Fengzhaoyi and Jinyi in the History of Chinese Translation of Buddhist Scriptures[J]. Journal of Foreign Languages, 2024, 47(3): 110-120.

“奉诏译”与“进译”三国至北宋佛经汉译史检视

A Reexamination on Fengzhaoyi and Jinyi in the History of Chinese Translation of Buddhist Scriptures

  • 摘要: 佛经翻译作为中国翻译史上的第一个大潮,一直参与着中国古代王朝国家治理实践。本研究通过中华电子佛典协会(CBETA)的佛典藏经数据库及其他古籍,检视佛经汉译史中的“奉诏译”“进译”现象,发现二者分别在三国吴和唐朝就已经出现,纵向观之,具有内生性演化的特点。其同在于二者都是王朝国家个体性权力主导型国家翻译实践,经文能否冠以“奉诏 译”标识从而成为国家治理文本,取决于皇帝的个体性权力;其异在于“进译”是“奉诏译”的前置条件,“奉诏译”是“进译”成功的标志。本研究深化了对佛经汉译传统的认知,为其历史书写提供了新质料。

     

    Abstract: As the first climax of translation history in China, the translation of Buddhist scriptures has always been involved in state governance in ancient China. This study, based on the CBETA(Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association) online database and detailed reading of other classical works, examines fengzhaoyi(translated by imperial command) and jinyi(presenting translations to the imperial ruler) in the history of Chinese translation of Buddhist scriptures, and finds that they started to appear in the Wu of Three Kingdoms and the Tang Dynasty respectively, and evolved endogenously. Their similarity lies in the fact that both are part of state translation programs dominated by the individual power of the dynastic state, and that whether or not a translated scripture could become a state text, bearing the words fengzhaoyi, depends on the imperial ruler. What sets them apart is that jinyi is a precondition for fengzhaoyi, and that fengzhaoyi is a sign of the success of jinyi. This study deepens the knowledge of Chinese translation tradition of Buddhist scriptures, and provides new materials for its historical study.

     

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