王忻, 傅晶. 汉日语次生叹词对比研究:词汇化、语法化视角[J]. 外国语, 2024, 47(3): 63-75.
引用本文: 王忻, 傅晶. 汉日语次生叹词对比研究:词汇化、语法化视角[J]. 外国语, 2024, 47(3): 63-75.
WANG Xin, FU Jing. A Comparative Study of Secondary Interjections Between Chinese and Japanese: From the Perspective of Lexicalization and Grammaticalization[J]. Journal of Foreign Languages, 2024, 47(3): 63-75.
Citation: WANG Xin, FU Jing. A Comparative Study of Secondary Interjections Between Chinese and Japanese: From the Perspective of Lexicalization and Grammaticalization[J]. Journal of Foreign Languages, 2024, 47(3): 63-75.

汉日语次生叹词对比研究:词汇化、语法化视角

A Comparative Study of Secondary Interjections Between Chinese and Japanese: From the Perspective of Lexicalization and Grammaticalization

  • 摘要: 次生叹词可分为评价性、招唤性、寒暄性和詈词性几种。汉日语次生叹词形成路径微观上有同有异,宏观上大同小异。其共性最大的是“好”和“良し”,叹词化前后情况都相同。詈词转叹词的情况也是汉日英都有,汉日语同路径但不同源。招唤性同义叹词“给”与“どうぞ”同路径但不同源。寒暄性叹词广义性同源但手段各异。次生叹词形成的过程就是词汇化(仅限词源为非词的)向语法化、语用化前进的过程,这与跨语言普遍的语言演变方向一致。词源为词的虽无词汇化过程但语法化特征亦非常明显。

     

    Abstract: Secondary interjections mainly include evaluative interjections, evocative interjections, conversational interjections and swearwords used as interjections. From the micro perspective, there are similarities and differences in the formation path of secondary interjections in Chinese and Japanese, and from the macro perspective, they are similar. Chinese “hao” and Japanese “yoshi” are the most similar ones. The situation is the same before and after interjectionization. Swearwords are all used as interjections in Chinese, Japanese and English. And in Chinese and Japanese, they have the same path but different sources. The evocative interjections “gei” and “douzo” have the same path but different sources. In a broad sense, conversational interjections are from the same sources, but their changing paths are different. The formation of secondary interjections is a process from lexicalization (only when the etymology is a nonword) to grammaticalization and pragmaticalization, which is consistent with the broad-spectrum of language evolution across languages. When the etymology is a word, even though it didn’t undergo a process of lexicalization, its grammaticalization characteristics are very obvious.

     

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